Sabtu, 17 April 2010



1. What are the differences between caused and correlational studies ?

Answer : Causal is like as an experimental design, as we know, are set up to exmine possible cause and effect relationship amang variables and correlational studies which examine the relationships among variables without necessarily trying to establish if one variable causes another.

2. In what ways do lab experiments differ from field experiments ?

Answer : Yes, lab experiments done in an artificial or contrived environment and field experiments is those done in the natural environment in which activities regularly take place.

3. Define the terms control and manipulation. Describe a possible lab experiment where you would need to control a variable. Further, include a possible variable over which you would have no control but which could affect your experiment.

Answer : Term control is meant having to control the contaminating factors, and we will later see how this is done manipulation sumply means that we create different levels of the independent variable to assess the impact on the dependent variable.

4. Explain the possible ways in which you can control “nuisance” variables.

Answer : One way of controlling the contaminating or nuisance variables is to match the various groups by taking the confounding characteristics and deliberately spreeding the across groups.

5. What is internal validity and what are the threats to interval validity ?

Answer : Internal validity refers to the confidence place in the cause and effect relationship. The seven major threats to internal validity are the effects of history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, selection, statistical regression and mortality.

6. Expalin the concept of “trade – off between internal validity and external validity”.

Answer : If we want high internal validity, we should be willing to settle for lower external validity and visa versa to ensure both types of validity, researcher usually try first to test the causal relationship in a tightly controlled artificial or lab setting and once the relationship has been established, they try to test the causal relationship in a field experiment.

7. Explain fully how you would demonstrate to machine operators and convince them that thorough knowledge of the operating policies and procedures (by reading the manual) will eliminate amost all on-the-job accidents.

Answer : With the following operational policies and procedures (by reading the manual) are of course very stony in operating the machine, because the instructions it contains will provide important information about the machine. if the machine can be operated by either going to avoid on the job accidents.

8. It a control group is a part of an experimental design, one need not worry about controlling other exogenous variables. Discus this statement

Answer : We do not have to worry about controlling the exogenous variables for the experimental design we can solve those problems.

9. A researcher wants to set up a lab experiment to test the effects of different kinds o

Leadership styies on follower attitudes. The three particular kinds of leadership styles she is interested in testing are autocratic, democratic, and participative. You are asked to enlist some students to play the pat of followers. What cover story would you give he participants ?

Answer : “ Influence of leadership style to the custom of the students attitudes “ . leadership styles that tested or researched is autocratic, democratic and participative .

10. “Because the external validity of lab experiments is not usually high, they are useless for investigating cause and effect relationship in organization.” Comments on this statements.

Answer : External validity of laboratory experiments should be further enhanced in order to examine the causal relationships within an organization.

11. “Covar iance ( i.e.. two variables varying together either positively or negatively) and contro are integral aspects of experimental design.” Discuss.

Answer : Covariance and control are two inseparable aspects of experimental design, in addition there are several other aspects such as Quasi, Pretest and Posttest experimental group design , Posttest Only etc .

12. “The Solomon four-group design is the answer to all our research questions pertaining to cause and effett relations because it guards against all the threats to validity.” Comment on this statement.

Answer : Internal validity may help to find a causal relationship of an event, should be maintained or even enhanced in order to examine a variety of interesting events.

13. Below is not on self – estreem. After reading it, apply what you have learned in this chapter and design a study sketching the theoretical framework.

Answer : We agree with the statement that self-esteem affects success. the intention is to achieve the success required not only education, basic skills and experiences but also honesty. honest manner will make others respect us.

Nama Kelompok :

1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )

2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )

3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )

4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )

5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12


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