Sabtu, 17 April 2010



1. Briefly describe a situation where , give the result of a hypothesis testing study , the manager has to extensively apply experience and common sense in making the final decision.

Answer : Manager wrestly with a multitode of problems big and small in their every day work life. The differences between a succesfull and not so successful organization lies in the quality of decisions mode by the managers in the system to sum up, research is scientific path that leads the managers to decision making and experience and common sesnse are the beacons that guide managers to solve problems sensibly.

2. Which involves a more difficult decision-making situation for a manager-applying the results of qualitative study or a hypothesis testing study?why?

Answer : A qualitative studies, because there is always an undecer mined element of risk that manager takes in making the proposed changes.

3. Describe and depict through a diagram the cycle of the research process , from the time when the area in investigated for the first time , to finding definitive answer to the problems encountered in that area .

Answer :

- Observation

- Preparation of data collection

- Definition problems

- Theoretical Framework

- Hypothesis Development

- Design Scientific research

- Data collection, analysis, and intrepertasi

- Deduction

- Making Presentations Writing Decision Report Report

Nama Kelompok :
1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )
2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )
3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )
4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )
5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. Why is it necessary to have the letter of authorization in the report?

Answer : A copy of the letter of authorization from the sponsor of the study, approving the investigation and detailing its scope, will be attached at the the beginning of the report. This would have been given by the sponsor in the response to the research proposal submitted by researchersoon after the initial interviews and the identification of the problem.

2. Discuss the purpose and contents of the Executive Summary?

Answer : The executive summary is brief aaccount of the research study that provides an overview, and highlights the following important information related to the study the problem statement, the sampling design, the data collection methods used, result of data analysis, the findings and the recommendations with suggestions for their implementation.

3. What are the similarities and differences of basic and applied research reports?

Answer : The differences of basic report is use synopsis and applied research use executive summary. The similar is all report should have an introductory section detaling the purpose of the study, giving some background of what it relates to, and stating the problem studied, setting the stage for what the reader could expect in the rest of the report.

4. How have technological advancements helped in writing and presenting research reports?

Answer : Technology help reinforced presenting research report by visual tabular and graphical forms of representation of the data will be provided and despite the fact that report writing is a function of the purpose of the study and the type of audience to which it is presented, and has accordingly to be tailored to meet both, certain basic features are integral to all written report.

5. Why is it necessary to specify the limitations of the study in the research report?

Answer : It is necessary to limitation of the study in the research report so that the issue in the research study is not too wide, so we can focused on the main issue that we studied on.

6. What aspects of a class research project would you stress in the written report and in the oral presentation?

Answer : The challenge is also to present the important aspects of the study in an interesting manner while still providing statical and quantitative information, that many in the audience may find rather dull. Different stimuli have to be creatively provided to the audience to sustain their interest thoughout the presentation.

Nama Kelompok :
1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )
2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )
3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )
4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )
5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. What kinds of biases do you think could be minimized or avoided during the data analysis stage of research ?

Answer :

· Out range / missing / responses

· Missing data / blank

· Inconsistency

· Precision and accuracy, data / answers

2. When we collected wonders if he should of treatment in experimental designs which statistical test would be most appropriate to test the treatment effects?

Answer : The most appropriate statistical test to examine the effects of treatment, that is paired t-test test.

3. A tax consultant wonders if he should be more selective about the class of clients he was serves, so as to maximize his income. He usually deals with four categories clients, the very rich, rich, upper middle class and middle class. He has record of each client and each client served, the tax paid by them and how much he has charged them. Since many factors in respect to the clients (number of dependents, business deductibles, etc.) irrespective of the category they belong to, he would like an appropriate analysis to be done to see among the four categories of clientele he should choose to be served in the future.

What kind of analysis should be done the preceding cas and why ?

Answer : Namely multiple linear regression analysis, because we analyze the variation of the various factors which vary widely. With multiple linear regression test and look at the coefficient table 4 we can see among the most influential variables on corporate income by looking at the largest beta value. The largest beta value is the most important and influential on corporate earnings, so should the tax consultant must choose the variable with the largest beta.

4. Below are tables 12A to 12D, summarize the results of data analyses of research conducted in a sales organization that operets 50 different cities of country, with a total sales force of about 500. the number of sales sample for the study was 150:
You are to :

1. Interpret much of the information contained in each table as detailed as possible.

2. Can summarize the results for the CEO of the company.

3. Make recommendations based on the results of your interpretation.

Answer :

1. a. From table 12A can result in that:

· Sales have averaged 75.1 with a standard deviation of 8.6, minimum 45.2 and maximum sales sales amounted to 97.3

· There are many sellers sebesr average standard deviation of 25 with 6, a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 50

· Population had an average of 5.1 with a standard deviation of 0.8, minimum 2.78 and maximum of 7.12

· Campaigns have an average of 10.3 with a standard deviation of 5.2, a minimum of 6.1 and a maximum of 15.7

b. From table 12B: states that there is a relationship between the variables concerned.

· Correlation coefficient with the seller's sales amounted to 0.76 means that closeness is strong correlation

· The population correlation coefficient with sales of 0.62 means that closeness is strong correlation

· Correlation coefficient with a sales revenue of 0.56 means keeretan is strong correlation

· Advertising with a correlation coefficient of 0.68 means the closeness of the sales are strong correlation

· With a total population correlation coefficient of 0.06 means that the seller is weak closeness correlation

· Correlation coefficient with the number of ads of 0.16 means that the seller is weak closeness correlation

· Correlation coefficient of income with a population of 0.11 means the closeness of the coefficient of weak

· An ad with a population correlation coefficient of 0.36 means the closeness of the coefficient of weak

· Correlation coefficient with the advertising revenue of 0.23 means the closeness of the correlation is weak.

c. Table 12C

So from the ANOVA table F value of 3.6 & significant F of 0.01. so can we conclude that there was no significant difference between the variance variabel2 who are.

d. 12D table

On the table there are 0.6594, who showed the correlation relationship of the 4 independent variables on the dependent variable (sales) & hubunganny is strong unidirectional nature. Value-me-adjusted coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) of 0.35225 means that 35.225% of sales variable is explained by the independent variable number of sellers, population, income & advertising. 64.775 and the rest is explained by other variables. Standard errors indicate possible errors that may occur if we see dikolom data, we will see that beta is the largest advertising amounted to 0.47 with a significant level of 0.00001 who showed that advertising is the most significant variable affecting.

2. From the table it was concluded that of the variables that most influence the advertising compared with the number of sellers, population, and income, because advertising has the largest beta value.

3. The recommendation that our group is the company must give more attention to advertising by increasing advertising, that could increase sales and corporate earnings.

Nama Kelompok :
1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )
2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )
3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )
4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )
5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. Identify the relevant population for the following research foci and ruggest the appropriate sampling design to investigate the issues, explaining why the are appropriate. Wherever necessary, identify the population frame as well.

a. A gun manufacturing firm would like to know the types of guns possessed by various age groups in Washington, D.C.

b. A hospital administrator wants to find out if the single parents working in the hospital have a higher rate of abseneism than parents who are not single.

c. A researcher would like to assess the extent of pilferage in the materials storage warehouses of manufacturing firms in the east coast.

d. The director of human resources wants to investigate the relationship between drug abuse and dysfunctional behavior of blue coliar workers in a particular plant.

Answer :

1. a. Toy gun was possessed by most children under 10 years in washington DC, while the 10 years old most children have the kind of long-barreled weapons.

b. Yes,a single parent who works at the hospital have a higher level, probably because she lived alone.

c. The results showed that the level of theft in the company’s warehouse storage facilities, material is very high. this is possible because the place is less strict vigil. and may also exist in the party who did this.

d. Results of investigations of the human resources director indicated that the relationship between drug users with the blue-collar workers is very tight. it can
known from direct interviews to the workers.

2. a. explain why cluster sampling is a probability sampling design.

b. what are the advantages and disadvantages of cluster sampling.

c. describe a situation where you would consider the use of cluster sampling.

Answer :

a. Cluster sampling lends it self to greater biases and is the least generalizable of all the probability sampling designs because most naturally occurring cluster in the organizational contex do not contain heterogeneous elements.

b. Advantages cluster sampling is have intergroup heterogeneity and intergroup homogeneity are found. And disadvantages cluster sampling, the units costs of cluster sampling are much lower compared to the other probability sampling.

c. I will use cluster sampling when I’ve worked in companies that have products that were homogeneous and heterogeneous.

3. a. Explain what precision and confidence are and how they influence sample size.

b. Discuss what is meant by the statement there is a trade of between precision and confidence under certain condition.

Answer :

a. Precision and confidence are important issues in sampling because when we use sample data to draw inference about the population.

b. In essence, confidence reflects the level of certainty with which we can state that our estimates of the population parameters.

4. The use of a convenience sample in organizational research is correct because all members share the same organizational stimuli and go through almost the same kinds of experiences in their organizational lives. Comment.

Answer : Yes probably almost all members of the organization has many similarities in past life experiences, so that all use of convenience samples in research organizations.

5. Use of a sample of 5.000 is not necessarily better than using one of 500. How would you react to this statement.

Answer : There is a point, because for what use the sample or samples when the truth is not much better than the sample lebiah little. better use of samples provided that some truth can be guaranteed.

6. Nonprobability sampling design ought to be preferred to probability sampling designs in some cases. Explain with examples.

Answer : In nonprobability sampling designs, the elements in the population have no probabilities attached to their being chosen as sample subjects.

7. Because there seems to be trade of between accuracy and confidence for any given sample size, accuracy should be always considered more important than precision. Explain with reasons why you would or would not agree.

Answer : strongly agree that the accuracy and reliability are more important than precision. because if the samples were unreliable and inaccurate, then the study could not be accounted for properly.

8. Overgeneralizations give rise to much confusion and other problems for researchers who try to replicate the findings. Explain what is meant by this.

Answer : Yes maybe the new researchers who want to replicate the findings should be more wisely in copying them, do not claim to have problems due to imitate the findings of other researchers who have first found it.

9. Double sampling is probably the least used of all sampling designs in organizational research. Do you agree? Provide reasons for your answer.

Answer : probably due to double sampling easier and more convenient to use in research. This design provides added information at minimal additional expenditure.

Nama Kelompok :

1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )

2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )

3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )

4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )

5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. As a manager you have been invited to come learn the research team and frequent advice on how to improve the performance of your staff. What steps would you take to assuage their concerns even before the team sets foot in your department?

Answer :

How to improve a performance at the staff / employees is by means of holding a program such as:

a. Improving Performance

Performance is the desired outcome of behavior. Individual performance is the basis of organizational performance. Perananpenting in performance appraisal has increased workplace motivation. This performance appraisal (performance appraisal) is basically a key factor in order to develop an effective and efficient organization. Employees want and need feedback regarding their performance and assessment provides the opportunity to provide feedback to them if performance is not in accordance with the standards, the assessment provides an opportunity to review the progress of employees and to develop performance improvement plans. there are 5 (five) factors in performance assessment, namely:

a. Quality of work include: acquisition, accuracy, performance and acceptance of output

b. Quantity of Work include: Volume of output and contribution

c. Supervision required, include: need advice, direction or repairs

d. Attendance include: regularity, dapatdipercaya / reliable and timely

b. Provide motivation

Motivation is a state in the person that drives a desire individumelakukankegiatan-specific activities to achieve Motivation goal basically is the process that determines how much effort will be devoted to carrying out the work. ” Motivation or incentive to work is crucial to the achievement of something objective, then the man must be able to grow as high work motivation for employees within the company “

c. Improve discipline

Discipline itself interpreted as a willingness to someone that may arise with their own consciousness to follow the rules and regulations prevailing in the organization.

2. What is bias, and how can be reduced during interview ?

Answer : Irregularities in the interview usually refers to a mistake or inaccuracy of the data collected. Deviations can be reduced during the interview by repeating and clarifying questions we ask so that they understand the questions that we provide, and cites some of the answers to ensure a deep understanding of the response person being interviewed so that we do not deviate from the answers they give.

3. Explain the principles of wording, stating how these are important in questionnaire design, siting examples not in the book.

Answer : Principle of the words usually refer to factors such as conformance content questions, how questions and level of language used, the type and form of questions asked, order of questions, personal data sought from respondents.

· Content and purpose Questions

Variable facts will determine the types of questions will be asked. If these variables are subjective variables such as satisfaction, and engagement in which the respondents believe measuring perceptions and attitudes of the dimensions and the elements. The purpose of each question should be carefully considered so that the variable is in the measure.

·Language and Words on Questionnaire

Language questionnaire to be seen from the respondents’ level of understanding. The choice of words will depend on the level of education, the use of terms and idioms in the culture and framework of the respondents. For example, when English is the official language spoken by the two cultures, particular words may be foreign to a culture.

4. What are projective techniques and how can they be profitably used ?

Answer : This technique is useful in providing an opportunity to express their attitudes of respondents without a personal embarrassment. These techniques help the respondent to project their own attitudes and feelings on the subject aware of being studied. So projective technique plays an important role in motivation research or attitude surveys.

5. Describe the different data sources, explaining and from multiple sources related to the reliability and validity of the measures ?

Answer :

·Direct Interview

Advantages: the interview used to obtain data directly from the company. which is a communication from one worker to obtain information in accordance with the desired and by conducting interviews obtained more complete data.

Disadvantage: time consuming interview techniques and a very large cost for the sample is big enough and spread. Interviewing means of communication between the interviewer and the interviewee, this tends to generate a difference in interpretation between the two.


Advantages: the questionnaire is a research method that must be answered respondents to express his views on an issue. The use of questionnaires as data collection methods have several advantages, among them are questions that will be presented to respondents can be standardized, the respondent can answer a questionnaire on their leisure time, the question can be thought of in advance so that answers can be trusted compared with a verbal answer, and questions raised would be more accurate and uniform.
Disadvantage: the respondent can not give more details because the answer is limited to matters in question.


Advantages: With the observation that many symptoms can be investigated, the results are more accurate and difficult to argue with. Many objects are only willing to taken only with the observation data, such as too busy and less time to be interviewed or to complete a questionnaire.
Losses: Observations depends on observation and memory skills. Many events and circumstances that are difficult objects observed, especially concerning the life of a highly confidential approach for cloning.

6. How are multiple methods of data collection and from mulyiple sources related to thereliability and validity of the measures ?

Answer : For example, if the responses were collected through questionnaires. Before the instrument, or measuring devices used to collect research data, it is necessary to test the questionnaire for validity and reliability of measurement validity tersebut.Uji useful to know whether the measure is valid, the valid means of measuring the accuracy of measuring or the proper tools to measure a variable to be measured. Validity and reliability tests used to examine the data derived from a list of questions or questionnaire respondents, the validity and reliability can be proved that the list of questions in the questionnaire filled out by the respondents are representative of the population or not. There are two important conditions which apply to a questionnaire that is necessary for a valid and reliable questionnaire. A questionnaire is said to be valid if the question on a questionnaire able to express something that will be measured by the questionnaire. While a questionnaire said reliable (reliably) if a person answers to the questions are consistent or stable over time.

7. “Every data collection method has its own built-in biases. Therefore, resorting to multimethods of data collection is only going to compound the biases.” How would you critique this statement?

Answer : I think that good research requires data from multiple source data collection method. In a study of accounting rriset basically can be done through several methodologies, through a quantitative methodology, qualitative, or triangulation. To avoid confusion between the research methodology with the research methods necessary to distinguish prior understanding between the two. The research methodology is part of science that studies how the procedures for seeking truth.

8. “One way to deal with discrepancies found in the data obtained from multiple sources is to average the figures and take the mean as the value of the variable.” What is your reaction to this ?

Answer : In the data collection is sometimes we find a mismatch. Therefore we must look carefully and closely to the data, so we know whether the data is feasible or not to be used as data in a study.

9. How has the advancement in technology helped data gathering ?

Answer : Advances in technology can help us to collect data by providing easy to collect the data we need in the research, such as collecting detailed data products have been sold through the tracking of optical scanners and bar code, data searches on the Internet that provide convenience, data recording using tools such as video camera recorders and others. In some processing using electronic data processing which also provides error-free.

10. How will you use the data from observational study to reach scientific conclusions ?

Answer : Data from the information we were with a variety of processing tools such as statistical analysis with SPSS and other analysis tools for testing and our test results we will use it to take a scientific conclusion.

11. “The fewer the biases in measurement and in the data collection procedures, the more scientific the research. Comment on this statement.

Answer : We agree with that view because if the smaller size of the bias in our research, it means that our research will be increasingly closer to the truth and the more scientific and we can use as a reference for similar examination or subsequent research.

Nama Kelompok :

1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )

2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )

3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )

4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )

5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. Briefly describe the difference between attitude rating scales and ranking scales and indicate when the two are used.

Answer : Now that we know the four different types of scales that can be used to measure the operationally defined dimensions and elements of a variable, it is neccessary to examin the methods of scaling to elicit the attitudinal responses of subjects toward objects, events, or persons. Rating scale ave several response categories and are used to elicit responses with regard to the object, event, or person studied. Ranking scale, on the other hand, make comparisons between or among objects, events, or persons and elicit the preferred choices and ranking among them.

2. Why is it important to establish the ‘goodness’ of measures and how is this done ?

Anwer : The goodness of measures is established through the different kinds of validity and reability. The result of any research can only be as good as the measures that tap the consepts in the theoretical framework. We need to use well-validated and realiable measures to ensure that we engage in scientific research.

3. Construct a semantic differential scale to assess the properties of a particular brand of coffe or tea.

Answer : Several bipolar attributes are identified at the extremes of the scale, and respondents are asked to indicate their attitudes, on what may be called a semantic space, toward a particular individual, object, or event on each of the attributes. The bipolar adjectives used, for instance, would denote such terms as : Hot – Cold. The semantic differential scale is used to assess respondents attidutes toward a particular brand.

4. “Whenever possible, it is advisable to use instruments that have already been developed and repeatly used in published studies, rather than developed our own imstruments for our studies.” Do you agree? Discuss the reason for your answer.

Answer : We are not agree, because if we are not able to develop the instrument, so we can not get new experience, and dependence with the available instruments. It is better if we use our instruments so that we able to learn new things.

5. “A valid instruments is always reliable, but a reliable instruments may not always be valid.” Comment on this statement.

Answer : I think i agree with this statement because a valid instrument it means fact and always realiable instrument maybe it’s issue . so it is always be valid. Although this statement have to same substance word (realiable and valid) but they have different means.

Nama Kelompok :

1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )

2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )

3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )

4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )

5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12




1. What is meant by operational definition and way is it necessary ?

Answer : Operationalizing, or operationally defining a concept, to render it measurable, is done by looking at the behavioral demensions, facets or properties denoted by the concept,Because will help to illustrate how this is done.

2. Operationally define the following :

Answer :

a. Sexual harassment is both simple and complex, it is simple because it is defined as unwelcome sexual behavior by one person against another person againt another person. It is complex because it can involve behaviors that in other contexts are considered positive and reaffirming

b. Diversity-positive environment is about a achievement motivation likely,driven by work,unable to relax, impatience with inerfectiveness,seeks moderate challenge,seeks feed back

c. Career Success means different things to different people. For some, monetary reward is a measure of success. Yet others have multiple definition of success.

3. Describe the four types of scales.

Answer :

a. Nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups

b. Ordinal scale not only categorizes the variables in such a way as to denote differences among the various categories, it also rank-orders the categories in some meaningful way.

c. Interval scale an inverval scale allows us to perform certain arithmentical operations on the data collected from the respondent

d. Rasio scale overcomes the deficiency of the arbitrary orgin point of the intercal scale, in that it has an absolute (in contrast to an arbitrary) zero point which is a meaningful meansurement point.

4. How is the interval scale more soplisticated than the nominal and ordinal scales ?

Answer : An inverval scale allows us to perform certain arithmentical operations on the data collected from the respondent. Whereas the nominal scale allows us only to qualitatively distinguish groups by categorizing them into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive sets, and the ordinal scale to rank-order the preferences the scale

5. Why is the ratio scale considered to be the most powerful of the four scales ?

Answer : Because it has a unique zero origin (not an arbitrary origin) and subsumes all the properties of the other three scales.

Nama Kelompok :

1.Anang Hermanto ( 20207098 )

2.Bondan Untoro ( 20207216 )

3.Hendra Hidayat ( 20205573 )

4.Mahensal Ifnu Prabowo ( 20207682 )

5.Mohammad Wisnu Prabowo ( 20207725 )

Kelas : 3 EB 12